Types of custom metal bending
1. Tube Bending: This process involves reshaping a tube into a desired shape. It’s commonly used in the automotive and aerospace industries for creating parts like exhaust pipes and hydraulic systems.
2. Sheet Metal Bending: This type of bending is used to shape flat sheets of metal. It’s often used in the construction of buildings, appliances, and vehicles.
3. Press Brake Bending: This process uses a press brake machine to bend metal. It’s typically used for creating complex, precise shapes and is often used in the manufacturing of industrial parts and equipment.
4. Roll Bending: This method is used to bend large pieces of metal into a circular or curved shape. It’s commonly used in the construction of tanks, boilers, and shipbuilding.
5. Three-Point Bending: This process involves applying force to the center of a metal piece while it’s supported at both ends. It’s often used in mechanical testing to determine the strength and flexibility of a metal.
6. Mandrel Bending: This type of bending uses a mandrel (a metal rod or ball) inserted into the tube to prevent it from collapsing or deforming during the bending process. It’s often used in the automotive and aerospace industries for creating parts with tight radii.
7. Rotary Draw Bending: This method uses a rotary draw machine to bend tube and pipe to a desired radius. It’s often used in the construction of handrails, frames, and other structures that require a smooth, tight radius.
8. Induction Bending: This process uses heat to make the metal more pliable before bending it. It’s often used in the construction of pipelines and other large-scale projects.
9. Coining: This is a type of bending where the metal is stamped or pressed into a specific shape. It’s often used in the production of coins, medals, and other decorative items.
Pros and Cons of Using custom metal bending
Pros of Using Custom Metal Bending:
1. Versatility: Custom metal bending allows for a wide range of shapes and sizes, making it suitable for various applications in industries like construction, automotive, aerospace, etc.
2. Precision: With advanced technology, custom metal bending can achieve high precision and accuracy, ensuring the final product meets the exact specifications.
3. Efficiency: It reduces the need for welding or joining multiple pieces together, saving time and resources in the production process.
4. Durability: Bending doesn’t compromise the strength of the metal, resulting in durable and long-lasting products.
5. Cost-effective: It reduces waste as it uses the exact amount of material needed for the design, making it a cost-effective solution.
Cons of Using Custom Metal Bending:
1. Equipment Cost: The initial cost of purchasing or renting the necessary machinery can be high, especially for small businesses or individual users.
2. Skilled Labor: It requires skilled operators to ensure precision and quality, which can increase labor costs.
3. Limitations: Not all metals or alloys are suitable for bending. Some may crack or break during the process, limiting the types of materials that can be used.
4. Design Restrictions: While it offers versatility, there are still limitations to the complexity of designs that can be achieved through bending.
5. Maintenance: Regular maintenance is required for the machinery to ensure its longevity and performance, adding to the overall cost.
custom metal bending Reference Specifications (varies for different product)
Custom metal bending involves the process of deforming metal over an axis by applying force to manipulate it into a specific shape. The following are reference specifications that may vary depending on the product:
1. Material Type: The type of metal being bent plays a significant role. Common materials include steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, and brass. The material’s properties, such as its hardness and ductility, will affect the bending process.
2. Bending Radius: This refers to the inside radius of the bend. It is determined by the die used during the bending process. The bending radius should be at least equal to the material thickness to prevent cracking or deformation.
3. Bend Angle: This is the angle to which the material is bent. It is measured in degrees and can range from a slight bend to a full 180-degree bend.
4. Material Thickness: This is the thickness of the material before bending. The thicker the material, the more force is required to bend it.
5. Bend Direction: This refers to the direction in which the material is bent. It can be either along or against the grain of the material.
6. Tolerance: This is the allowable deviation from the specified dimensions. It is usually measured in thousandths of an inch or millimeters.
7. Tooling: This refers to the tools used in the bending process. Different tools can produce different bend radii, angles, and shapes.
8. Quantity: The number of pieces required can affect the bending process. Larger quantities may require more automated processes, while smaller quantities may be done manually.
9. Finish: This refers to the surface finish of the bent product. It can range from a raw, unfinished surface to a polished, coated, or painted finish.
10. Application: The intended use of the product can affect the bending process. For example, products for the aerospace industry may require more precise specifications than those for the construction industry.
These specifications are crucial in ensuring the final product meets the desired quality and functionality.
Applications of custom metal bending and Type of Companies use custom metal bending
Custom metal bending is a process used in various industries to create specific shapes and designs from different types of metal. This process is crucial in manufacturing parts for machinery, construction, automotive, aerospace, and many other sectors.
1. Construction and Architecture: Custom metal bending is used in creating structural components like beams, pipes, and tubes. It’s also used in architectural elements like railings, staircases, and decorative metalwork.
2. Automotive Industry: Car manufacturers use this process to create parts like exhaust pipes, frames, and body panels. It’s also used in making components for motorcycles, bicycles, and other vehicles.
3. Aerospace Industry: Custom metal bending is used in the production of aircraft parts, including wings, fuselage sections, and engine components. It’s also used in making parts for spacecraft and satellites.
4. Manufacturing Industry: This process is used in creating parts for machinery and equipment. It’s also used in making components for electronics, appliances, and other consumer goods.
5. Energy Industry: Custom metal bending is used in making components for power plants, oil and gas facilities, and renewable energy systems. It’s also used in creating parts for transmission lines and pipelines.
Companies that use custom metal bending include construction firms, car manufacturers, aerospace companies, machinery manufacturers, and energy companies. These companies often work with metal fabrication shops that specialize in custom metal bending. These shops have the equipment and expertise to bend metal into precise shapes and sizes, ensuring the parts meet the specific requirements of their clients.
Quality Testing Methods for custom metal bending and Work Process Use custom metal bending
Quality testing methods for custom metal bending are crucial to ensure the final product meets the required specifications and standards. These methods can vary depending on the type of metal, the desired shape, and the application of the final product.
1. Visual Inspection: This is the simplest and most common method. It involves checking the metal part for any visible defects such as cracks, discoloration, or deformities.
2. Dimensional Inspection: This involves measuring the dimensions of the bent metal part to ensure it matches the specified measurements. This can be done using tools like calipers, micrometers, or coordinate measuring machines (CMM).
3. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT): This includes methods like ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle inspection, or radiographic testing. These methods can detect internal defects or irregularities that are not visible to the naked eye.
4. Bend Test: This test involves bending the metal part to a certain degree to check its flexibility and resistance to cracking.
5. Hardness Testing: This test measures the hardness of the metal part to ensure it can withstand the required pressure or load.
The work process for custom metal bending typically involves the following steps:
1. Design: The first step is to design the part using CAD software. This includes specifying the dimensions, shape, and bend angles.
2. Material Selection: The appropriate metal is selected based on the part’s requirements.
3. Bending: The metal is then bent using a variety of methods such as press brake bending, roll bending, or tube bending.
4. Finishing: After bending, the part may undergo additional processes like cutting, drilling, or welding.
5. Quality Testing: The final step is to conduct the appropriate quality tests to ensure the part meets the required specifications.
By following these steps and conducting thorough quality testing, manufacturers can ensure their custom metal bending processes produce high-quality, reliable parts.
Comprehensive Analysis of custom metal bending Costs: Including Visible and Hidden Costs
Custom metal bending costs can be categorized into visible and hidden costs. Visible costs are straightforward and include raw material costs, labor costs, and machine operation costs. Raw material costs depend on the type of metal used, its quality, and market prices. Labor costs are determined by the number of hours spent on the project and the wages of the workers. Machine operation costs include the cost of running and maintaining the machines used in the bending process.
Hidden costs, on the other hand, are not immediately apparent but can significantly impact the overall cost. These include design and prototyping costs, waste and scrap costs, and quality control costs. Design and prototyping costs are incurred during the initial stages of the project when the design is being finalized and prototypes are being made. Waste and scrap costs arise from the material that is wasted during the bending process. Quality control costs are associated with the measures taken to ensure the final product meets the required standards.
Another hidden cost is the cost of non-compliance, which can occur if the final product does not meet regulatory standards. This can result in fines, product recalls, and damage to the company’s reputation.
In conclusion, while visible costs such as raw materials, labor, and machine operation are easy to calculate, hidden costs like design, waste, quality control, and non-compliance can significantly increase the overall cost of custom metal bending. Therefore, it’s crucial for businesses to consider both visible and hidden costs when estimating the cost of a custom metal bending project.
Payment Terms for custom metal bending and Bulk Purchase Discounts and Price Variances Among Suppliers
Payment terms for custom metal bending services typically require an upfront deposit, often 50% of the total cost, before the work begins. The remaining balance is usually due upon completion of the work. However, these terms can vary depending on the supplier, the complexity of the project, and the relationship between the buyer and the supplier. Some suppliers may offer more flexible payment terms for repeat customers or large orders.
Bulk purchase discounts are common in the metal bending industry. Suppliers often offer tiered pricing structures, where the price per unit decreases as the quantity ordered increases. This is because the cost of production per unit decreases with larger orders, allowing suppliers to pass on some of these savings to their customers.
Price variances among suppliers can be due to a number of factors. Different suppliers may have different cost structures, including labor costs, overhead costs, and the cost of raw materials. Additionally, the quality of the metal and the complexity of the bending process can also affect the price. Some suppliers may also offer additional services, such as design assistance or delivery, which can add to the overall cost.
It’s important for buyers to consider all of these factors when comparing prices among suppliers. While the lowest price may seem like the best deal, it’s also important to consider the quality of the product and the reliability of the supplier.
Chinese Regulations and Industry Standards Certifications for custom metal bending
Custom metal bending in China is regulated by several industry standards and certifications. These are designed to ensure safety, quality, and environmental responsibility in the production process.
One of the main regulations is the GB/T 19001-2016/ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System. This standard requires companies to establish and maintain a quality management system that ensures consistent product quality and customer satisfaction. It covers all aspects of the production process, from raw material procurement to final product delivery.
Another important standard is the GB/T 24001-2016/ISO 14001:2015 Environmental Management System. This certification ensures that companies are minimizing their environmental impact through efficient use of resources and reduction of waste. It also requires companies to continually improve their environmental performance.
For safety, the GB/T 28001-2011/OHSAS 18001:2007 Occupational Health and Safety Management System is crucial. This standard requires companies to identify and control health and safety risks, reduce the potential for accidents, and comply with relevant laws and regulations.
In terms of product-specific standards, the GB/T 6728-2017 standard applies to cold-formed hollow sections for general structure, while the GB/T 13793-2008 standard applies to steel pipes for low-pressure fluid transportation. These standards specify the technical requirements, test methods, and inspection rules for these products.
Finally, the GB/T 3323-2005 standard applies to radiographic examination for fusion welded joints in steel, which is often used in custom metal bending. This standard specifies the methods and quality levels for radiographic examination to ensure the integrity of welded joints.
In conclusion, custom metal bending in China is regulated by a comprehensive set of industry standards and certifications. These ensure that companies are producing high-quality, safe, and environmentally responsible products.
Navigating Import Regulations and Customs for custom metal bending from China
Importing custom metal bending from China involves understanding and complying with various import regulations and customs procedures.
Firstly, ensure the product complies with the standards and regulations of your home country. For instance, in the U.S, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) oversees the safety of products imported into the country.
Secondly, identify the correct Harmonized System (HS) code for your product. This code is used by customs authorities worldwide to categorize products for duty and tax purposes.
Thirdly, calculate the landed cost which includes the price of the product, transportation fees, customs duties, and insurance. This will help you determine the final cost of the product.
Fourthly, prepare necessary documents such as a Bill of Lading or Airway Bill, Commercial Invoice, and Packing List. These documents are required by customs for clearance.
Fifthly, hire a licensed customs broker to facilitate the customs clearance process. They have expertise in entry procedures, admissibility requirements, classification, valuation, and the duties and taxes imposed on imported goods.
Lastly, ensure compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) which prohibits bribing foreign officials to obtain or retain business.
Remember, non-compliance with import regulations and customs procedures can result in delays, fines, and confiscation of goods. Therefore, it is crucial to understand and adhere to these regulations when importing custom metal bending from China.
Procurement and Considerations when Purchasing custom metal bending
Procuring custom metal bending services requires careful consideration to ensure quality, cost-effectiveness, and timely delivery.
Firstly, identify your specific needs. This includes the type of metal to be bent, the complexity of the design, and the quantity required. Understanding these requirements will help you choose a supplier with the right capabilities.
Secondly, consider the supplier’s experience and reputation. A supplier with a proven track record in custom metal bending is likely to deliver high-quality products. Check their portfolio, customer reviews, and industry certifications.
Thirdly, consider the cost. While it’s important to stay within budget, don’t compromise on quality for the sake of saving money. Instead, look for a supplier who offers a good balance between cost and quality.
Fourthly, consider the supplier’s delivery time. Custom metal bending can be a time-consuming process, so ensure the supplier can meet your deadlines.
Lastly, consider the supplier’s location. A local supplier may offer faster delivery and lower shipping costs. However, don’t rule out overseas suppliers who may offer competitive prices.
In conclusion, when procuring custom metal bending services, it’s crucial to consider your specific needs, the supplier’s experience and reputation, cost, delivery time, and location. By considering these factors, you can ensure you choose a supplier who can deliver high-quality custom metal bending services within your budget and timeframe.
Sourcing custom metal bending from China: Opportunities, Risks, and Key Players
Sourcing custom metal bending from China presents a myriad of opportunities. China’s manufacturing industry is vast, with a wide range of companies specializing in metal bending. This provides a broad selection of suppliers to choose from, potentially offering competitive pricing. China’s advanced manufacturing technology and skilled workforce can also ensure high-quality products. Moreover, China’s well-developed logistics and transportation infrastructure can facilitate efficient and timely delivery.
However, there are risks involved. Language and cultural barriers can lead to misunderstandings, affecting product specifications and quality. Intellectual property rights protection is another concern, as China has been criticized for weak enforcement. Additionally, the ongoing trade tensions between China and other countries may result in tariffs or import restrictions, increasing costs.
Key players in China’s custom metal bending industry include Jiangsu Zhongwan Machine Technology Co., Ltd., a leading manufacturer of CNC press brakes and shearing machines; Shenzhen Runze Hardware Technology Co., Ltd., a company specializing in sheet metal fabrication; and Dongguan HY Hardware Products Co., Ltd., a manufacturer of custom metal parts.
In conclusion, while sourcing custom metal bending from China can offer cost advantages and access to advanced manufacturing capabilities, it is crucial to carefully select suppliers, clarify product specifications, and consider potential trade restrictions.
Cultivating Successful Business Relationships with Chinese custom metal bending Suppliers
Building successful business relationships with Chinese custom metal bending suppliers requires understanding and respecting their business culture.
Firstly, establish trust. Chinese business culture is built on relationships and trust. It’s not just about the transaction, but the relationship that develops over time. This can be achieved by regular communication, face-to-face meetings, and showing genuine interest in their business and culture.
Secondly, respect hierarchy. Chinese businesses operate on a hierarchical system. Always address the most senior person first in meetings and correspondence. This shows respect for their position and acknowledges their status.
Thirdly, understand the importance of ‘Guanxi’. This refers to the network of relationships among various parties that cooperate together and support one another. The Chinese business community is tightly knit, and having good ‘Guanxi’ can lead to more business opportunities.
Fourthly, be patient and persistent. Business in China may not move at the pace you’re used to. Decisions are often made collectively and can take time. Be patient, show commitment, and avoid rushing them into making decisions.
Lastly, appreciate the importance of face (‘Mianzi’). This is a person’s reputation and dignity. Always praise your Chinese partners in public and avoid doing anything that might embarrass them.
By understanding these cultural nuances, you can cultivate a successful business relationship with Chinese custom metal bending suppliers.
Sustainability and Environmental Considerations in custom metal bending Manufacturing
Custom metal bending manufacturing is a critical process in various industries, including automotive, construction, and aerospace. However, it also poses significant environmental challenges, primarily due to energy consumption and waste generation. Therefore, sustainability and environmental considerations are crucial in this sector.
Firstly, energy efficiency is a key concern. Metal bending requires substantial energy, often sourced from fossil fuels, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Manufacturers can address this by investing in energy-efficient machinery, optimizing production processes, and using renewable energy sources.
Secondly, waste management is vital. Metal bending often produces substantial waste, including offcuts and shavings. These can be minimized through precision manufacturing techniques, reducing the amount of raw material used. Additionally, waste can be recycled, either within the same production process or by selling it to other industries.
Thirdly, water usage is another significant environmental concern. Many metal bending processes require water for cooling and lubrication. Manufacturers can reduce their water footprint by recycling water within their facilities or using alternative cooling methods.
Lastly, manufacturers should consider the lifecycle impact of their products. This includes the energy and resources used in production, the product’s lifespan, and its end-of-life disposal. By designing products to be durable, repairable, and recyclable, manufacturers can significantly reduce their environmental impact.
In conclusion, while custom metal bending manufacturing poses environmental challenges, there are several strategies manufacturers can employ to improve sustainability. These include energy efficiency, waste management, water conservation, and lifecycle considerations. By adopting these practices, manufacturers can not only reduce their environmental impact but also potentially save costs and improve their brand reputation.
The Evolution and Market Trends in custom metal bending Industry
The custom metal bending industry has undergone significant evolution over the years, driven by technological advancements, market demands, and changing industry standards.
Initially, metal bending was a labor-intensive process that required manual force and simple tools. However, the advent of technology has revolutionized this process. Today, computer numerical control (CNC) machines are widely used in the industry, allowing for precise, efficient, and consistent bending of metals. These machines can bend a variety of metals, including steel, aluminum, and copper, into complex shapes and sizes.
In recent years, the industry has seen a shift towards automation. Automated bending machines not only increase productivity but also reduce labor costs and improve safety. They can operate around the clock, reducing downtime and increasing output.
The market trends in the custom metal bending industry are largely influenced by the demands of end-use industries. The automotive industry, for instance, requires custom-bent metal parts for vehicle bodies and components. Similarly, the construction industry uses custom-bent metal for structural and architectural purposes.
The demand for custom metal bending is also driven by the trend towards customization. More and more customers are seeking unique, tailor-made products, and the custom metal bending industry is well-positioned to meet this demand.
Sustainability is another key trend in the industry. With growing environmental concerns, there is an increasing demand for eco-friendly practices in metal bending. This includes the use of energy-efficient machines and the recycling of metal waste.
In conclusion, the custom metal bending industry has evolved significantly over the years, driven by technological advancements and changing market trends. The industry is expected to continue growing, driven by the increasing demand from end-use industries, the trend towards customization, and the growing emphasis on sustainability.
The Role of Agents and Sourcing Companies in Facilitating custom metal bending Purchases from China
Agents and sourcing companies play a pivotal role in facilitating custom metal bending purchases from China. They serve as intermediaries between buyers and manufacturers, ensuring a smooth and efficient procurement process.
Firstly, they help in identifying reliable manufacturers. China has a vast market with numerous manufacturers, making it challenging for foreign buyers to find a trustworthy supplier. Agents use their local knowledge and networks to find reputable manufacturers that can deliver high-quality custom metal bending services.
Secondly, they handle negotiations. Language and cultural barriers can make it difficult for foreign buyers to negotiate effectively. Agents, being fluent in both Chinese and the buyer’s language, can negotiate on behalf of the buyer, ensuring a fair deal.
Thirdly, they oversee quality control. Agents can visit the manufacturing site to inspect the quality of the custom metal bending process and the final product. This ensures that the product meets the buyer’s specifications and quality standards.
Fourthly, they manage logistics. Sourcing companies can handle the shipping process, ensuring that the products are delivered on time and in good condition. They can also handle customs clearance, reducing the risk of delays or complications.
Finally, they provide after-sales service. If there are any issues with the product, the agent can liaise with the manufacturer to resolve them. This saves the buyer the time and hassle of dealing with the manufacturer directly.
In conclusion, agents and sourcing companies play an essential role in facilitating custom metal bending purchases from China. They simplify the procurement process, ensuring that buyers receive high-quality products on time and at a fair price.
How to use import and export data website importyeti.com to search the company and custom metal bending
To use importyeti.com to search for a company and custom metal bending, follow these steps:
1. Open your web browser and go to www.importyeti.com.
2. On the homepage, you’ll see a search bar at the top. Type in the name of the company you’re looking for and click on the ‘Search’ button.
3. The website will display a list of companies that match your search. Click on the company name to view more details.
4. On the company’s page, you’ll find information about their import and export activities. Look for ‘custom metal bending’ in the product descriptions of their imports and exports.
5. If you want to export the data, scroll down to the bottom of the page and click on ‘Export Data’. You can choose to export the data as a CSV or Excel file.
Remember, the data provided by ImportYeti is based on Bill of Lading records, so it may not include all of a company’s import and export activities. It’s a great tool for getting a general idea of a company’s trading partners and the types of products they deal with.
How to use Chinese Business Search Platform: qcc.com to check custom metal bending company credit
1. Open your web browser and type in the URL: www.qcc.com. This will take you to the homepage of the Chinese business search platform.
2. On the homepage, you will see a search bar at the top. Type in the name of the custom metal bending company you want to check and click on the search icon or press enter.
3. The search results will display a list of companies that match your search criteria. Click on the name of the company you are interested in.
4. You will be directed to the company’s profile page. Here, you can find detailed information about the company, including its registration status, legal representative, registered capital, establishment date, and business scope.
5. To check the company’s credit, scroll down to the “Credit Information” section. Here, you can see the company’s credit score, any legal disputes, and other related information.
6. You can also click on the “Credit Report” button to get a detailed credit report of the company. This report will provide you with a comprehensive view of the company’s credit status, including its payment habits, financial stability, and any legal issues.
7. Remember, the information provided on qcc.com is based on public records and may not be 100% accurate or up-to-date. Therefore, it’s always a good idea to cross-check the information with other sources or consult with a professional before making any business decisions.
Please note that the website is in Chinese, so you may need to use a translation tool if you are not fluent in the language.
Overcoming Challenges and Facilitation of Sourcing custom metal bending from China
Sourcing custom metal bending from China can be a challenging task due to language barriers, quality control issues, and logistical complexities. However, these challenges can be overcome with strategic planning and effective communication.
Firstly, partnering with a local sourcing agent can help bridge the language gap and facilitate smoother negotiations. They can also assist in understanding the local market, identifying reliable suppliers, and ensuring that your specific requirements are met.
Secondly, quality control is a significant concern when sourcing from overseas. To mitigate this, it’s crucial to establish clear quality standards from the outset. Regular inspections and audits should be conducted to ensure these standards are consistently met. Additionally, working with suppliers who have international quality certifications can provide an extra layer of assurance.
Lastly, managing logistics can be complex due to the distance, time difference, and customs regulations. Employing a logistics company with experience in international shipping can help navigate these complexities. They can handle the paperwork, track shipments, and ensure timely delivery.
In conclusion, while sourcing custom metal bending from China may present some challenges, these can be effectively managed with the right strategies and partnerships. This can open up opportunities for cost savings and access to a vast supplier base.
FAQs on Sourcing and Manufacturing custom metal bending in China
1. **What is custom metal bending?**
Custom metal bending is a manufacturing process where metal is deformed by bending or folding to achieve a specific shape as per the client’s requirements.
2. **Why source custom metal bending from China?**
China is a global manufacturing hub known for its cost-effective and efficient production capabilities. Chinese manufacturers have advanced machinery and skilled labor to produce high-quality custom metal bends.
3. **How to find a reliable metal bending manufacturer in China?**
You can find reliable manufacturers through online B2B platforms, trade fairs, or sourcing agents. It’s crucial to verify the manufacturer’s certifications, production capabilities, and previous client reviews.
4. **What are the common materials used in custom metal bending?**
Common materials include stainless steel, aluminum, copper, brass, and carbon steel. The choice of material depends on the product’s intended use.
5. **What is the lead time for custom metal bending in China?**
The lead time varies depending on the complexity of the design, quantity, and manufacturer’s schedule. Typically, it ranges from a few weeks to a few months.
6. **How is the quality of the custom metal bending ensured?**
Quality is ensured through rigorous inspections at various stages of production. Many manufacturers also comply with international quality standards like ISO.
7. **What are the shipping options?**
Shipping options include air freight, sea freight, or express delivery services like DHL, FedEx. The choice depends on the urgency, volume, and budget.
8. **Are there any import duties or taxes?**
Yes, import duties or taxes are typically levied on goods imported from China. The rates vary depending on the product and the country of import.
9. **Can I order a sample before mass production?**
Yes, most manufacturers allow clients to order a sample to assess the quality and suitability of the product before proceeding with mass production.
10. **What are the payment terms?**
Payment terms vary among manufacturers but commonly include a deposit before production and balance payment before shipment. Some manufacturers may also offer Letter of Credit (LC) or PayPal.